Published by the medical journal Medical News- scientific journal: Electromagnetic fields, Year 9th, issue # 47 2012.

Lambros S. Hadjimichael, Cert. MTD

The progress of the electromagnetic fields in the early years slowed down more than it should because the research was hampered by a lack of support. With resentment at first and a gradual increase in acceptance later, electromagnetic fields became the norm, a legal and worthwhile method, while several branches of medicine are sure to benefit from the principles and findings of this technique.

What is a natural and what is an artificial magnetic field?

The concept of this field is general. Physics borrowed magnetic fields from everyday life and used it in the same way in order to interpret certain phenomena. The space which if we bring a suitable suffix, force from any point it will be exerted on it was defined as a field. Consequently, the concept of the magnetic field has been defined as the area of ​​space where it is characterized by the application of forces (attractive-repulsive) on moving electric charges.

Until the  19th century, magnetism was linked only to the attractive forces of the natural magnet. However, in 1820 a research by Oersted’s change the existing theory. Oersted concluded that around the tube-shaped tube a magnetic field is created and the power line of which is closed along the entire length of the conductor has the same characteristics as the magnetic field which created by a magnet. So it is understood that in both natural and artificial magnets, the creation of a field is due to closed currents, created by the movement of electrons around the nuclei.

When it comes to natural magnets, things are different. In them, the magnetic field consists of a continuous current of elementary molecules from the North to the South Pole. The concentration of these molecules is higher in the power line of the magnet. In other words, it is a continuous molecule of molecules.

Each molecule consists of one or more atoms. Examination of the force of atoms led to the conclusion that the magnetic properties of materials are due to the orbit and rotation of the electrons, which move around the nuclei of atoms. It is important to note that natural magnets create a stable field, called a static magnetic field. The same field can be created by artificial magnets, when the tubular-shaped conductor leaks direct current.

The results differ based on the variable that flows through the conductor. According to Oersted and Faraday, when a tube-like conductor is fed by a variable current, an electric and magnetic field of variable intensity is created, depending on the current rate.

Based on that, James Clerk Maxwell set out to formulate a theory of electricity and magnetism, the electromagnetism.

Electromagnetic field

Electromagnetic field  is the field which presents the characteristics of both the electric and the magnetic field. Production sources are electromagnets, which are simple permanent magnets. They consist of a core (usually iron) and a conductor, which wraps around a core (coil), the thread through which flows current.

Maxwell, formulating the electromagnetic theory, led to the conclusion that when an electric charge is accelerated, it emits electromagnetic waves. These consist of an electric and a magnetic field, which are perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of the wave. The waves have characterized by the same frequency and phase and their propagation is characterized of the speed of the light.

The effect of electromagnetic fields on matter

The effect of electromagnetic fields on matter is the movement of electric charges, as well as the orientation of the atoms and molecules that they encounter.

The various materials and substances of the nature are distinguished in 3 categories based on their behavior in the effect of the magnetic field

  • Intermittently where they do not allow sufficient penetration of the field within them,
  • Paramagnetic where they become magnetic dipoles that follow the dynamic lines of the magnetic field or acquire magnetization in the same direction as the field and
  • Ferromagneticin which they have strong field magnetization and show bipolar magnetic torque even without a field.

Organic membranes are trans-magnetic and are only slightly affected by the magnetic fields under normal conditions. The effects of electromagnetic fields are mainly manifested in paramagnetic substances but also in magnetic ones where their elements are converted into paramagnetic ones. In the human body there is a huge amount of paramagnetic substances which increases with each disease.

The electromagnetic field tends to put the body in “some order”, orienting the magnetic dipoles and ions. In addition, it increases the internal energy of biological systems, giving them part of its energy. As a result, the thermodynamics the entropy of systems increases based on the second law Part of human body function is the reduction of entropy. To achieve that pulse-changing electromagnetic field is required in order to climate part of the energy which is being stimulated in the form of heat.

The application of electromagnetic fields in physiotherapy 

In recent years, research has shown different types of electric-magnetic fields as well as stimulation from properly configured fields. However, it took several years for researchers to arrive at today’s data, looks at specialized cells and vital functions. Many experiments and a wealth of knowledge were required in order to electromagnetic fields in physiotherapy used it as a part of the therapy.

Thus, magnetic fields, directly or indirectly, affect multiple functions such as:

  • release of endomorphs,
  • adjustment of the degree of wetting of the cell membrane (scaling action),
  • effect on the sympathetic or parasympathetic system,
  • favorable effect on the body’s defenses (white blood cells, platelets and γ-globin),
  • reduction of osteoclasts,
  • increase in osteoblasts,
  • increased perfusion,
  • increase in prostaglandins.

Indications and contraindications of electromagnetic fields

Experience combined with current data has shown that the electromagnetic fields can have a positive effect over a wide range depending on the condition. No adverse effects were observed. Choosing the wrong parameters out of ignorance or negligence does not lead to a negative result. The only consequence is the reduction of profitability. However, electromagnetic fields are not a panacea for the disease, but it can be used as a supplement to the physiotherapy rehabilitation program.

Electromagnetic fields can be applied with satisfactory therapeutic results in the following cases:

  • traumatic injuries to the tendons, muscles and ligaments,
  • chronic and transient diseases of the locomotor system, especially the joints (eg arthritis),
  • sports injuries (i.e fractures),
  • recent fractures,
  • delayed fractures,
  • senile osteoporosis,
  • inactive wounds of slow healing, burns, sluggish sores, floods,
  • headaches,
  • arterial diseases,
  • sinusitis (sinusitis, frontal sinusitis).

Contraindications to magnetic fields

  • in the presence of a pacemaker,
  • pregnancy,
  • tuberculosis,
  • diabetes,
  • and carriers of gravity machines.

Time of treatment

The duration of the treatment depends on the condition and has a variable duration. The time of the treatment and the frequency depend on the nature of the incident. The physiotherapist is the one who will decide the time and frequency of the treatments.

 

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